Monday 24 May 2010

T.Y.B.A. Paper IV – Psychological Testing and Statistics 100 marks

Objectives -

1) To impart knowledge and understanding of the nature, uses, technical features, and the process of construction of Psychological Tests
2) To create awareness about Measurement of Intelligence and Assessment of Personality
3) To impart knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts in Statistics and the various measures of Descriptive Statistics - their characteristics, uses, applications and methods of calculation
4) To create a foundation for advanced learning of Psychological Testing, Assessment, and Statistics

(4 lectures per week; 48 lectures per term; 11 lectures per topic in Section I, 7 lectures per topic in Section II, and 6 lectures for the Orientation to Psychological Testing)

Section I - Psychological Testing - 50 marks

Topic I. Psychological Testing, Assessment and Norms
a) Testing and Assessment - definitions and tools
b) The parties and types of settings involved
c) How are Assessments conducted?
d) Reference sources for authoritative information about tests
e) Various assumptions about Psychological Testing and Assessment
f) What is a ‘Good Test’?
g) Norms –sampling to develop norms, types of norms, fixed reference group scoring systems, norm-referenced versus criterion-referenced evaluation
h) Inference from Measurement – meta analysis; culture and inference

Topic II. Reliability
a) The concept of Reliability
b) Reliability estimates –Various methods
c) Using and interpreting a coefficient of Reliability
d) Reliability and individual scores

Topic III. Validity
a) The concept of Validity
b) Content Validity
c) Criterion-related Validity
d) Construct Validity
e) Validity, bias, and fairness

Topic IV. Test Development
a) Test conceptualization
b) Test construction
c) Test tryout
d) Item analysis
e) Test revision

Topic V. Measurement of Intelligence and Assessment of Personality
a) What is Intelligence? - Definitions and theories
b) Measuring Intelligence
c) The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
d) The Wechsler Tests
e) Definitions of Personality and Personality Assessment
f) Personality Assessment – some basic questions
g) Developing instruments to assess Personality – logic and reason, theory, data reduction methods, Criterion groups
h) Personality Assessment and culture
i) Objective methods of Personality Assessment
j) Projective methods of Personality Assessment

Section II Statistics - 50 marks

Topic VI. Types of scores, Types of scales, Frequency Distribution and Graphic representations
a) Continuous and discrete scores – meaning and difference
b) Nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales of measurement
c) Preparing a Frequency Distribution
d) Advantages and disadvantages of Preparing a Frequency Distribution
e) Frequency polygon, histogram, cumulative frequency curve, ogive
f) Smoothing a Frequency polygon – method of running averages

Topic VII Measures of central tendency
a) Calculation of mean, median and mode
b) The assumed mean method for calculating the mean
c) Merits, limitations, and uses of mean, median and mode
d) Comparison of the 3 Measures of central tendency

Topic VIII. Measures of Variability, Percentiles, and Percentile Ranks
a) Range and Average Deviation
b) Quartile Deviation and Standard Deviation
c) Calculation of the 4 Measures of Variability
d) Merits, limitations, and uses of Range, AD, QD, and SD
e) Comparison of the 4 Measures of Variability
f) Percentiles – nature, merits, limitations, and uses
g) Calculation of Percentiles and Percentile Ranks

Topic IX. Probability, Normal Probability Curve and Standard scores
a) The concept of Probability
b) Characteristics, importance and applications of the Normal Probability Curve
c) Area under the Normal Curve
d) Skewness- positive and negative, causes of Skewness, formula for calculation
e) Kurtosis - meaning and formula for calculation
f) Standard scores – z, T, stanine; linear and non-linear transformation; Normalised Standard scores

Topic X. Correlation
a) Meaning and types of Correlation – positive, negative and zero
b) Graphic representations of Correlation - Scatterplots
c) The steps involved in calculation of Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient
d) Calculation of rho by Spearman’s rank-difference method
e) Uses and limitations of Correlation coefficient
f) Simple Regression and multiple Regression

Book for study
Cohen, J.R., & Swerdlik, M.E. (2010). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An introduction to Tests and Measurement. (7th ed.). New York. McGraw-Hill International edition

Note – Chapter no. 2 – ‘Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations of Testing’ will not have a question set on it. However, it should be taught as an orientation to Psychological Testing.

Books for reference

1) Aiken, L. R., & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological Testing and Assessment. (12th ed.). Pearson. Indian reprint 2009, by Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi

2) Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing. (7th ed.). Pearson Education, Indian reprint 2002

3) Aaron, A., Aaron, E. N., & Coups, E. J. (2006). Statistics for Psychology. (4th ed.). Pearson Education, Indian reprint 2007

4) Gregory, R. J. (2004). Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications. (4th ed.). Pearson Indian reprint 2008, by Dorling Kindersley India pvt ltd, New Delhi

5) Hoffman, E. (2002). Psychological Testing at Work. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill

6) Hollis-Sawyer, L.A., Thornton, G. C. III, Hurd, B., & Condon, M.E. (2009). Exercises in Psychological Testing. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education

7) Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2005). Psychological Testing – Principles, Applications and Issues. (6th ed.). Wadsworth Thomson Learning, Indian reprint 2007

8) Kline, T.J.B. (2005). Psychological Testing: A Practical approach to design and evaluation. New Delhi: Vistaar (Sage) publications

9) Mangal, S.K. (1987). Statistics in Psychology and Education. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

10) McBurney, D.H. (2001). Research Methods. (5th ed.). Bangalore: Thomson Learning India

11) McIntire, S.A., & Miller, L.A. (2000). Foundations of Psychological Testing. (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education



T.Y.B.A. Paper IV - Psychological Testing and Statistics –
100 marks, Duration = 3 hours


There will be 5 questions in each Section, 10 questions in all. Three questions from each Section, 6 questions in all, are to be attempted. The use of calculators is allowed.

Question no. 1 in Section I on Topic I (Psychological Testing, Assessment and Norms) and Question no. 10 in Section II on Topic X (Correlation) carry 18 marks and are compulsory.

The remaining 8 questions carry 16 marks each. Any 4 questions are to be attempted out of these 8 questions, 2 questions from each Section.
Section I – Psychological Testing - Q. No. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, will be on the 5 respective topics. The first 4 questions will be essay-type. Q. No. 5 will be a-b type (8 + 8 marks), with a) on Measurement of Intelligence and b) on Assessment of Personality.

Example -

Sec. I. Psychological Testing - 50 marks Marks
Q. 1 On topic I Psychological Testing, Assessment and Norms 18
Q. 2 On topic II Reliability 16
Q. 3 On topic III Validity 16
Q. 4 On topic IV Test Development 16
Q. 5 On topic V Measurement of Intelligence 08
Assessment of Personality 08

Sec. II Statistics - 50 marks
Q. 6 On topic
VI a = 3 marks. Theoretical question
b = 10 marks. Preparing a Frequency Distribution
c = 3 marks. Plot a Frequency polygon or a Histogram 16

Q. 7 On topic VII
a = 3 marks. Theoretical question
b = 5 + 5 + 3 = 13 marks - Calculation of Mean = 5, median = 5,
and mode = 3. 16
Q. 8 On topic VIII
a = 3 marks. Theoretical question
b. = 9 marks Calculation of QD or SD
c. 2 + 2 marks - Calculation of 1 Percentile = 2,
and 1 Percentile Rank = 2 marks 16
Q. 9 On topic IX
Probability, Normal Probability Curve and Standard scores
Theoretical question - Write Short Notes - any 4/6,
each for 4 marks. 16
Q. 10 On topic X
a. = 4 marks Theoretical question
b. = 13 marks. Calculation of rho by Spearman’s rank-difference method
c. = 1 mark. Interpretation of answer 18

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